Stable oxygen isotopes

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Oxygen has three naturally-occuring stable isotopes: 16O, 17O, 18O, with 16O being the most abundant (99.762%).

Two international reference standards are used to report variations in oxygen isotope standards: PDB and SMOW. The use of the PDB standard in reporting oxygen isotope composition is restricted to carbonates of low-temperature origins (e.g., oceanic, lacustrine ). The conversion between SMOW and PDB scales is given by:

 \delta^{18}O_{SMOW} = 1.03091 (\delta^{18}O_{PDB}) +30.91

δ18O may be measured on: